Multitenancy MultitenantService

Multitenant Service

As all JOnAS services, multitenant service could be activated in When this service is enabled, all applications which have a tenantId (i.e. tenantId is set in jonas-web.xml or jonas-application.xml) will be configured as multitenant application :

  • First, recover the tenantId and bind it. (If an application has not a tenandId, default tenantId is used. However, following operations are not applied)
  • Then, rename JNDI names by adding a prefix wich is the tenantId
  • Next, update persistence units by adding eclipselink properties to configure EJB entities as multitenant and propagate the tenantId
  • And finally, customize the context root by adding the tenantId in the URL.

    This video explains how configure a sample application as multitenant.

Default tenant ID

When multitenant service is enabled, each instance of an application related to a tenant must have a tenant identifier. This identifier will be used thereafter to customize differents components of the application (JNDI names, context root, ...). In case of a missing tenant identifier, the default tenantId will be affected. This default tenantId is "T0" and can be accessible by multitenantService.getDefaultTenantId();

Naming strategy

When an application is deployed in multitenant mode, we take the risk of having a conflict between bound names of each tenant. A solution is to add a prefix before each name. This prefix is the tenantId of the tenant which names are related. During the deployment, a prefix is defined following the syntax : Tx with x a number, and will be added to application's names by :

newNamingStrategies.add(ejb3Service.getNamingStrategy(prefix, oldNamingStrategy));

Example: MyInitializerBean will be T17MyInitializerBean.

In addition, as for versioning service, a virtual JNDI binding is made. It will remove the prefix and rebind the old name to the same object. Then, we will have 2 names (MyInitializeBean and T17MyInitializerBean) linked to the same object.

Propagation of the tenantId to eclipselink

To persist the tenantId in database, we have to add a property in persistence.xml file (cf Prototype). To automize the propagation of the tenantId to eclipselink we need to add this property automaticly when the application is added. Then, we will use the method

 persistenceUnitManager.addProperty("eclipselink.tenant-id", tenantId);.

EJB Entity configured as multitenant

Entities must be configured as multitenant to enable adding tenant-id in the database. To do this, we have to add @Multitenant annotation in each class but we need to do that automatically (when multitenant service is activated). A solution is to use a Session Customizer (cf It is a simple class with only one method (customize) and take one parameter (Session session). In this method, we will set all entity classes as multitenant as follows :

public void customize(Session session) throws Exception {
Map<Class, ClassDescriptor> descs = session.getDescriptors();
       // For each entity class ...
for(Map.Entry<Class, ClassDescriptor> desc : descs.entrySet()){
           // Create a multitenant policy (Single table)
   SingleTableMultitenantPolicy policy = new SingleTableMultitenantPolicy(desc.getValue());
           // Tell that column descriminator is TENANT_ID (it will be added in the database)
   policy.addTenantDiscriminatorField("eclipselink.tenant-id", new DatabaseField("TENANT_ID"));
           // Add this policy in class derscriptor

Obviously, we can do other things in this session customizer (than enable multitenancy) since we have access to all class descriptor's properties.

When multitenante service is enabled, persistence unit manager is updated by adding these properties to eclipselink :

  * Add eclipselink properties
  * @param persistenceUnitManager persistence unit manager
  * @param tenantId tenant identifier

public void updatePersistenceUnitManager(EZBPersistenceUnitManager persistenceUnitManager, String tenantId){
// This property will configure entities as multitenant
// It is the equivalent of @Multitenant
String sessionCustomizerProperty = "eclipselink.session.customizer";
String sessionCustomizerClass = "org.ow2.easybeans.persistence.eclipselink.MultitenantEntitiesSessionCustomizer";
persistenceUnitManager.addProperty(sessionCustomizerProperty, sessionCustomizerClass);

       // This property will configure eclipselink to (only) create
       // database.
       String createTablesProperty = "eclipselink.ddl-generation";
        String createTablesValue = "create-tables";
        persistenceUnitManager.addProperty(createTablesProperty, createTablesValue);

// This property will propagte the tenantId to eclipselink
// This value will be added to entities tables
String tenantIdProperty = "eclipselink.tenant-id";
String tenantIdValue = tenantId;

Customize context root

If an application is multitenant (i.e. its tenantId is different than null or default tenantId), the URL of the application will be modified by adding the tenantId.

Example : Deployment of javaee5-earsample with tenantId = T1

  • Without multitenant service, context root => /javaee5-earsample
  • With multitenant service, context root => /T1/javaee5-earsample
 For secured servlet, ensure that context-id corresponds to the right context-root (with tenantId)

Customize logs

If you want to see tenantId in logs, add %T to the wanted handler (tty, logf, ...) in For tty handler for example we will have :

handler.tty.pattern  %T %d : %O{1}.%M : %m%n

In order for not having dependency from Monolog to JOnAS, it was necessary to find a way to retrieve the correct tenantId for each tenant. One solution is to write an interface in monolog that will be implemented in JOnAS. This interface contains a method called getValue() which returns, in this case, the tenantId. The tenantId is retrieved from the context.

A new ipojo component will track services which implements this interface and are registered in OSGi plateform. When such service is registered, a callback will register this service, with his pattern, in Monolog.

 Pattern means letters added in to show an information (Example : t for thread, d for date, etc).

In starting of multitenant service, it will register itself in OSGi saying that he implements the LogInfo interface and set his pattern as a property :

<provides specifications="org.objectweb.util.monolog.api.LogInfo">
  <property field="pattern" name="pattern" type="java.lang.Character"/>

iPojo component is situated in modules/librairies/externals/monolog:

<ipojo xmlns:xsi=""
      xsi:schemaLocation="org.apache.felix.ipojo" >

 <component classname="org.ow2.jonas.monolog.MonologExtension"

   <requires optional="true"
     <callback type="bind" method="addExtension" />
     <callback type="unbind" method="removeExtension" />

   <!-- LifeCycle Callbacks -->
   <callback method="start" transition="validate" />
   <callback method="stop" transition="invalidate" />


 <instance component="MonologExtension" />


MonologExtension class contains method which are called as callback when a service is registered:

     * Add an extension to Monolog
     * @param logInfoProvider

   public void addExtension(final LogInfo logInfoProvider, ServiceReference ref) {
        Character pattern = (Character) ref.getProperty("pattern");
       try {
            Monolog.monologFactory.addLogInfo(pattern, logInfoProvider);
       } catch (Exception e) {

       }"Extension ''{0}'' was added by ''{1}'' to Monolog", pattern, logInfoProvider.getClass().getName());

     * Remove and extension from Monolog

   public void removeExtension(ServiceReference ref) {
        Character pattern = (Character) ref.getProperty("pattern");
        Monolog.monologFactory.removeLogInfo(pattern);"Extension ''{0}'' was removerd from Monolog.", pattern);

To use monolog extension, you need to make a dependency on :


This is where monolog's extensions are handled.

 This Monolog extension is generic, you can add other information in log. You have just to implement the interface LogInfo in Monolog and register it in OSGi. Do not forget to add the pattern as property as shown bellow.

Customize MBeans

When we deploy a same application two times for two differents tenants, the problem is that application's mbeans will have the same name which will create a case of conflict. To avoid it, a solution is to add an attribut in the mbean's ObjectName named tenantId :


To do that, we need to intercept all MBeanServer methods calls since majority of these methods use the ObjectName. A solution is to set a proxy of the principal MBeanServer (which is returned by ManagementFactory.getPlatformMBeanServer()) :

Proxy.newProxyInstance(mbeanServer.getClass().getClassLoader(), new Class<?>[]{MBeanServer.class}, invocationHandler);

  • Define a handler implementation , which implements InvocationHandler interface and create an InvocationContext for each method invocation

    public class InvocationHandlerImpl implements InvocationHandler {
       public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
            InvocationContextImpl invocationContextImpl = new InvocationContextImpl(method, args, interceptors);
           return invocationContextImpl.proceed();

  • Define a context implementation, which implements InvocationContext interface and invoke interceptors before calling the initial method

    public class InvocationContextImpl implements InvocationContext {
       public Object proceed() throws Exception {
           try {
               return this.interceptors.get(index--).invoke(this);
           } finally {

  • Define an Interceptor interface which contains invoke() method

       public interface Interceptor {

            * @param invocationContext use to apply the interceptors sequence
            * @return invocation return

            Object invoke (InvocationContext invocationContext) throws Exception;

  • Each interceptor must implements this interface

In multitenant case, the intercepetor change the parameter ObjectName for all methods by adding tenantId property :

if (methodName.equals("method0")){
  // Classes where mbean ObjectName is the first parameter
  index = 0;
} else if (methodName.equals("method1")){
  // Classes where mbean ObjectName is the second parameter
  index = 1;

ObjectName oldObjectName = (ObjectName) parameters[index];
ObjectName newObjectName = updateObjectName(oldObjectName);
if (newObjectName != null) {
   parameters[index] = newObjectName;

private ObjectName updateObjectName (ObjectName old) {
   String tenantId = null;
  if (TenantCurrent.getCurrent().getTenantContext() != null) {
      tenantId = TenantCurrent.getCurrent().getTenantContext().getTenantId();
  if (old != null && tenantId != null && tenantId != TenantContext.DEFAULT_TENANT_ID) {
     try {
         return new ObjectName(new StringBuilder(old.toString()).append(","+tenantIdAttributeName+"=").append(tenantId).toString());
     } catch (MalformedObjectNameException e) {
         throw new RuntimeException("Failed to format [" + old + "]", e);
  return null;

Once the "proxified" MBeanServer is set, we need to get it from anywhere. Then, we will define it as the platformMBeanServer. We have two solutions:


Set our new MBeanServer impl. in the platformMBeanServer field of the and we will have permanently overriden the JVM agent's MBean registration :

Field serverField = ManagementFactory.class.getDeclaredField("platformMBeanServer");
serverField.set(null, ourMBeanServer);

This method works rightly but not really clean. (If one day, someone decides to change the field name, it will not work). The following is more elegant

Customized MBeanServerBuilder

Create our own MBeanServerBuilder with extends

public class JOnASMBeanServerBuilder extends MBeanServerBuilder {
       public MBeanServer newMBeanServer(String              defaultDomain,
                                      MBeanServer         outer,
                                      MBeanServerDelegate delegate) {

           // Create a MBeanServer
           MBeanServer origin = super.newMBeanServer(defaultDomain, outer, delegate);

           // Add default interceptor
           invocationHandler = new InvocationHandlerImpl();
            invocationHandler.addInterceptor(new MBeanServerDelegateInterceptor(origin));

           // Return a proxy of MBeanServer
           return (MBeanServer) Proxy.newProxyInstance(origin.getClass().getClassLoader(), new Class<?>[]{MBeanServer.class}, invocationHandler);